When I was a kid, ↑Thatcher was the headmistress of our country. Her voice, a bellicose yawn, somehow both boring and boring—I could ignore the content but the intent drilled its way in. She became leader of the Conservatives the year I was born and prime minister when I was four. She remained in power till I was 15. I am, it’s safe to say, one of Thatcher’s children. How then do I feel on the day of this matriarchal mourning?
↑Natsumi Hayashi lives in Tokyo and mainly photographs levitating self-portraits, sometimes even in 3D—see her ↑how-to. Her blog ↑yowayowa camera woman diary almost exclusively consists of the mentioned levitating pictures (with some cats interspersed) which for quite some time appeared on a daily basis. To my eye the pictures have a poetic quality. The sheer mass of them, no comments whatsoever, the somewhat distanced facial expression—all adds to it. Natsumi had an ↑exhibition of her pictures in 2012, ↑another one took place in late March 2013 in the Spiral Garden. Also in 2012 her first photo book, naturally titled ‘Today’s Levitation’ was published by Seigensha. Finally I know where all the levitating online pictures from East Asia stem from—the fashion was started by Natsumi’s blog and then went viral. On the one hand the pictures are instilling within me the ambience of some of ↵Mœbius‘s drawings. On the other hand I’ve got an association with certain visuals from Clive Barker’s ‘↑Lord of Illusions‘ (1995), showing illusionist Swann levitating, but can’t find the right picture.
Nice, someone cites me in the affirmative ;)
Führen wir uns nun vor Augen, dass z.B. Knorr für die Ethnologie zu Recht festhält: »Cyberanthropology ist eine Spielart der Ethnologie des 21. Jahrhunderts. Eine notwendige, ja unausweichliche […]. Denn nur wer sich mit jetztzeitiger Technologie befasst, kann auch den Menschen des Hier und Heute verstehen« (2011, 161; auch Escobar 1994, Breidenbach/Zukrigl 2002), so liegt die Antwort auf die Frage nach dem besonderen Forschungsdesiderat auf der Hand. Denn die Beschäftigung mit interkultureller Cyberkommunikation als Spielart interkultureller Kommunikation des 21. Jahrhunderts ist unausweichlich, um einen guten Teil der interkulturellen Kommunikation im Hier und Heute zu verstehen. (Reutner 2012: 14)
It’s in German only, sorry folks, but Jiré Emine Gözen’s doctoral thesis ‘Cyberpunk Science Fiction’ (2012) is exactly what we need. Here’s the ↑publisher’s official description:
Die Cyberpunk-Literatur – eine kurzlebige, aber bis heute einflussreiche Strömung der 1980er Jahre. Als erste ausführliche Auseinandersetzung mit den nahen Zukunftswelten der Cyberpunk-Literatur zeigt dieses Buch, wie das Genre mit seinen zentralen Topoi der Verschmelzung von Mensch und Maschine medientheoretische Konzepte in sich aufnimmt, fiktionalisiert – und letztendlich fortschreibt. Neben der Auseinandersetzung mit Cyberpunk und Medientheorie des 20. Jahrhunderts präsentiert Jiré Emine Gözen einen ausführlichen Überblick über die deutsche und anglo-amerikanische Science-Fiction-Forschung sowie die künstlerische Umsetzung postmoderner Ästhetik und Wirklichkeitsdarstellung.
In ihrer Analyse der medientheoretischen Bezüge des Cyberpunk, vertritt Gözen die These, dass in den “Weltentwürfe[n]” des Genres eine “künstlerische Verarbeitung von Medien- und Gesellschaftstheorien” auszumachen sei. Als “Denker”, deren Einfluss auf die Cyberpunk-Literatur am deutlichsten hervortritt”, nennt die Autorin Marshall McLuhan und Jean Baudrillard. Allerdings habe der Cyberpunk den Medientheorien der Genannten sogar noch einiges voraus. Baudrillard entwerfe etwa ein “Bild der Zukunft”, das nichts weiter als eine “recht unspezifische apokalyptische Vision der westlichen Zivilisation” böte, die von einem “eher negativen Blick auf Technologien geprägt” sei. Sei die “postmoderne Welt” von Baudrillard “glatt, rational und ohne Überraschungen”, so seien die “Universen” des Cyberpunk “mysteriös”, “lebendig” und “voller Bedrohungen”.
… water on my mills, because the matter reaches even way deeper—compare:
And just over the American border, in Canada, in the summer of 1950, Donald Theall, a young American graduate student at the University of Toronto, introduced his English professor, Marshall McLuhan, to Wiener’s work and to the new thinking of the cybernetics group. Theall handed McLuhan copies of Cybernetics and The Human Use of Human Beings and witnessed McLuhan’s reaction. “The relevance of Wiener in McLuhan’s mind had to do with Wiener’s image of the communications network as the contemporary symbol for the ‘age of communication and control,'” Theall recalled. Wiener’s ideas stimulated McLuhan’s thinking and spurred him on to build “a foundation for a contemporary theory of artistic communication” that became a conduit for the flow of cybernetic ideas into art, literature, and the whole of popular culture.
In 1953, McLuhan launched his celebrated seminars on “culture and communication” at the University of Toronto. A decade later, he would use Wiener’s ideas liberally, but without attribution, in his own watershed work, Understanding Media, which dissected the effects of television and every other medium of communication on human consciousness and culture. The book’s subtitle, The Extensions of Man, and its oracular pronouncements that “the medium is the message” and that electronic media had turned the world into a “global village,” echoed Wiener’s words in The Human Use of Human Beings that “the transportation of messages serves to forward an extension of man’s senses … from one end of the world to another,” and that “society can only be understood through a study of the messages and the communication facilities which belong to it.” (Conway & Siegelman 2005: 277)
Since quite some time I do maintain the notion, that cybernetics substantially has, and still does influence sociologic, anthropologic, and media theory. Be it Parsons, Luhmann, Rappaport, Bateson, McLuhan, Geertz, Foucault, Latour … you name it, and I’ll show you the cybernetics inside. (Knorr 2011: 41-46, 124; 2010) On the other hand I maintain that cyberpunk relays cybernetic notions and thinking. (Knorr 2011: 102). Now Gözen provides me with yet another element of those nested dialectics: Cybernetics inspire and influence McLuhan, cyberpunk not only relays, but furthers McLuhans thinking.
There’s a fine new book: ‘Vintage Tomorrows’ (Carrott & Johnson 2013). Here’s the official description:
What would today’s technology look like with Victorian-era design and materials? That’s the world steampunk envisions: a mad-inventor collection of 21st century-inspired contraptions powered by steam and driven by gears. In this book, futurist Brian David Johnson and cultural historian James Carrott explore steampunk, a cultural movement that’s captivated thousands of artists, designers, makers, hackers, and writers throughout the world.
Just like today, the late 19th century was an age of rapid technological change, and writers such as Jules Verne and H.G. Wells commented on their time with fantastic stories that jumpstarted science fiction. Through interviews with experts such as William Gibson, Cory Doctorow, Bruce Sterling, James Gleick, and Margaret Atwood, this book looks into steampunk’s vision of old-world craftsmen making beautiful hand-tooled gadgets, and what it says about our age of disposable technology.
Steampunk is everywhere—as gadget prototypes at Maker Faire, novels and comic books, paintings and photography, sculptures, fashion design, and music. Discover how this elaborate view of a history that never existed can help us reimagine our future.
And here’s a quote from the foreword by ↑Henry Jenkins:
For science fiction to exist as a genre, the culture must experience such rapid change that people could recognize significant shifts over their own lifetime and thus begin to imagine a future that looks radically different from the present. A society where the same basic practices are handed down generation after generation has little use for science fiction. Another precondition may be the capacity of a people to recognize that things your society takes for granted are not the only “natural” or “logic” ways that people might live.
The expansion of the British (and other European) empires was bringing the western world into contact with what, for the Victorians, was an alarming amount of cultural diversity. The age was one that saw ongoing breakthroughs in geography (as people sat out to map the empire), anthropology (as people discovered new people and practices), archeology (as ancient ruins were unearthed), and natural history (as the discovery of new species, such as the duck-billed platypus, shattered the conceptual frameworks by which people sought to order nature). (Jenkins 2013: ix)
Compare this to the following quote from ↑Bruce Sterling‘s introduction to ‘Mirrorshades’:
The cyberpunks are perhaps the first SF generation to grow up not only within the literary tradition of science fiction but in a truly science-fictional world. For them, the techniques of classical “hard SF” extrapolation, technological literacy—are not just literary tools but an aid to daily life. They are a means of understanding, and highly valued. (Sterling 1986: ix)
In 2011, the international community watched as a shockingly unlikely community of citizens toppled three of the world’s most entrenched dictators: Ben Ali in Tunisia, Mubarak in Egypt, and Qaddafi in Libya. This movement of cascading democratization, commonly known as the Arab Spring, was planned and executed not by political parties, but by students, young entrepreneurs, and the rising urban middle class. International experts and the popular press have pointed to the near-identical reliance on digital media in all three movements, arguing that these authoritarian regimes were in essence defeated by the Internet. Is that true? Should Mubarak blame Twitter for his sudden fall from power? Did digital media “cause” the Arab Spring?
In Democracy’s Fourth Wave?, Philip N. Howard and Muzammil M. Hussain examine the complex role of the Internet, mobile phones, and social networking applications in the Arab Spring. Examining digital media access, level of grievance, and levels of protest for popular democratization in 16 countries in the Middle East and North Africa, Howard and Hussain conclude that digital media was neither the most nor the least important cause of the Arab Spring. Instead, they illustrate a complex web of conjoined causal factors for social mobilization. The Arab revolts cascaded across countries largely because digital media allowed communities to realize shared grievances and nurtured transportable strategies for mobilizing against dictators. Individuals were inspired to protest for personal reasons, but through social media they acted collectively.
Democracy’s Fourth Wave examines not only the unexpected evolution of events during the Arab Spring, but the longer history of desperate-and creative-digital activism through the Arab world.
This is completely off topic, but just way too beautiful for not reblogging [and somewhat more entertaining than the papal election]. In January this year—2013—↑Billy Joel was at Vanderbilt University, New York for ‘An evening of questions and answers and a little bit of music.’ So, naturally, a piano was on stage with Mr Joel. Michael Pollack, one of the students in the vast audience, got the chance to pose a question, and his chance he took. He asked Billy Joel if he would sing ‘New York state of mind’ with Michael accompanying him on the piano … the result you can watch above.
This gentleman, reportedly a Chadian soldier in Mali, is holding what appears to be a well-worn ↑AKM variant with a host of after-market add-ons, creating a cosmetic hybrid between the globally established Kalashnikov operating system and the modern Western military obsession with rails, sights, tactical grips and collapsing stocks. [italics emphasis mine]
[…] I haven’t had time to review the kit of Chadian soldiers generally. So I can’t say whether this rifle is a one-off or now a standard in some Chad ground units. If the latter, and Chad’s arms-procurement officials have fitted out their AKs in such fashion, then some defense contractor or arms salesman somewhere may have made a fine penny. And if the latter, it would also be interesting to see a thoughtful analysis on whether such supposed upgrades have had any measurable effect on any units so equipped, or if money has been misspent.
This raises even more questions. First, no matter if it’s a one-off or a whole lot, why has it been assembled? Were there simply worn AKMs and parts of other rifles around? In other words: Is the hybrid the result of a chance seen within necessity? Or has it been designed deliberately? Following a set of æsthetics? If so, by whom are these æsthetics shared? By the manufacturers and the soldiers? Then, as Chivers hinted at, it’s completely unclear if the hybrid makes operational sense. Is it a good or a bad bricolage? Does it cater to operational needs, to æsthetic sense, to both, or none? The same question can be posed to ‘the modern Western military obsession with rails, sights, tactical grips and collapsing stocks.’ It’s quite probable that there are more hybrid weapon specimen around Africa and elsewhere—I’d like to see them and hear their stories.
On 26 February 2013 TV2 of Denmark needed a backdrop for a report on the current conflict in Syria. As it seems someone at the station searched the web for a suitable picture and hit upon a beautiful vista of the old city of Damascus. But the picture shows Damascus as it most probably has looked during the time of the ↑third crusade (1189-1192). Above that the picture doesn’t depict anything from the empirical world, but is a still from the computer game ‘↵Assassin’s Creed‘ (Ubisoft Montreal 2007). Quite tell-tale is the wooden beam attached to the minarett at the right. It’s a gameplay element from which you can perform the ‘↑leap of faith.’ Another gameplay element clearly visible are the rooftop gardens, those greenish cubes scattered atop buildings in the picture. Into this cubes, veiled by curtains, the character controlled by the player can ‘vanish’ after he has broken the line of sight between him and his persecutors.
But the irony goes even a step further. Most probably the people at TV2 hit upon the image via a Google image search, leading them to the subpage ‘↑Damascus‘ at the fan-driven ‘Assassin’s Creed’ wiki. The screencap wasn’t taken by a gamer, though. Rather it was made by Ubisoft staff and then given to the CGSociety for their 18 October 2007 feature ↑Assassin’s Creed: CGSociety production focus by Paul Hellard (the picture in question is to be found at the feature’s second page). The article is about the creation of the game’s environments, artistic blends of fantasy and historic realism …
The whole thing of course was a slip by a staff member, and hence may not happen too often—although the BBC just recently made a ↑similar fault, also concerning Syria. Nevertheless I like to see said slip as a symptom, because several associations came to my mind.
Years ago I was invited to give a lecture on ‘Computer games and violence’ at the Bayreuth International Graduate School of African Studies (↑BIGSAS). The audience was composed mainly of doctoral students from diverse African universities. My talk’s focus was pretty much on competitive multiplayer first-person shooters, so I showed them pictures from e.g. ‘↑Quake III Arena‘ (Q3A; id Software 1999). The fantasy/horror/scifi environments of the Quake series hardly really resemble anything from our empirical world. Especially when the graphics are stripped of all detail by video settings usually employed in competitive playing. In consequence there was no recognition and my listeners could follow the topic emotionally detached. But then I showed pictures of one of the most popular ‘↑Counter-Strike‘ (CS; Valve Corporation 2000 ) maps, and there was recognition:
This is a panorama view, made by ↑Zlandael, of the ‘↑Counter-Strike: Source‘ (CSS; Valve Corporation 2004) version of the map de_dust. A generic vista of a Near East, Northern, or Subsaharan Africa setting. The members of the audience at BIGSAS were perfectly aware that we were looking at an artificial topography following the ruleset of the game. What bothered them was the styling, resembling settings from their African countries of origin. Settings now used as an arena of violence, for a firearm battle between two teams labeled ‘terrorist’ and ‘counter-terrorist.’ Granted, there are CS and CSS maps which are e.g. Italian themed, and whatyouhave. Still, de_dust since years is one of the most popular maps, its looks well known outside of the CS community, almost having become synonym to CS. So, back to the question the audience back then asked me: Why is it that de_dust is styled like that? Well, I guess because by decades of news coverage pictures of ‘the’ Middle East have become inextricably linked with urban warfare and close quarter battle—within the minds of viewers from the North Atlantic societies. ‘Orientalism’ (Saïd 1978) redux.
Something similar is true for Africa at large. Following the TV news coverage you get the impression that Africa is a continent exclusively filled with corrupt governments, warlords, unstable, failed, and rogue states. An anarchic world of weapons and violence, the ideal setting for big adventure—like in ‘↑Far Cry 2‘ (FC2). Here is a screencap from the latter, depicting a Dogon village:
I wouldn’t be surprised when a screenshot like that from FC2 would creep up as a backdrop behind some anchorwoman delivering a report on Mali and the Dogon. There is a plethora of pictures of Dogon architecture online, especially because Dogon country is a major attraction for tourists visiting Mali. But in most of the cases the Dogon village screenshots from FC2 stand out. Just like the AC vista of ancient Damascus stood out for the staff member of Denmark’s TV2—little wonder, as it was created by top professional artists from the industry. Composition and lighting of the artificial pictures are not only superior, but follow Orientalist æsthetics.
All kinds of imaginary flow around the globe within the -scapes Appadurai (1996) proposed, recombine, influence, produce, and reproduce each other. It’s just like in a novel by Philip K. Dick—you never can be sure on which plane of reality you currently are.
The ideas and practices of Artificial Life research, and the interactions between these ideas and practices, are the topics of this thesis. How can the study of life, which ALife researchers see as pregiven by Darwinian evolution, be combined with the study of the artificial, which they see as “man made”? What implications do the combination of “artificial” and “life” have on how they practise their science? We will see that this combination makes Artificial Life a blend of a traditional naturalistic science and what they themselves sometimes call a postmodern science. (↑Risan 1997: ↑Introduction)
In their introduction Varela and Bourgine emphasise that Artificial Life is part of a longer line of thought. As many other ALife researchers do, they trace Artificial Life research back to the advent of ↑Cybernetics in the late 1940’s (1992:xi). Norbert Wiener defined Cybernetics as “control and communication in the animal and the machine.” (Wiener, 1948) Practitioners of cybernetics in the late 1940’s, as ALife researchers now, were occupied both with making life-like or intelligent computers and robots, and with understanding life and cognitive or mental phenomena. The emphasis that the ALifer in the story above placed on seeing cognition as embodied and embedded, that is, as an aspect of a larger system than the human brain, is something that he shares with many cyberneticians. Gregory Bateson, an anthropologist deeply involved in cybernetics, writes that “the mental characteristic of the system is immanent, not in some part, but in the system as a whole” (Bateson 1972:316). During the 1950’s the cybernetics movement fragmented. Some social scientists, with Bateson as a leading figure, started to apply the systemic perspective to social systems. This “social cybernetics” became particularly popular within family therapy (see for example Bateson et. al. 1956). Within engineering, cybernetics became a technique for making control systems (such as thermostats or goal seeking missiles). The discipline that combined the human/biological interest with the technical interest of the early cyberneticians became known as Artificial Intelligence (AI), today often referred to a bit ironically as GOFAI. The practitioners of this discipline distanced themselves from cybernetics. They rejected the holism of the systemic perspective and emphasised the formal and logical aspects of human cognition. The advent of Artificial Life research at places such as COGS is thus a reintroduction of the early cybernetical notions in contemporary artificial intelligence research.
ALife-researchers called themselves ALifers and, as a whole, the ALife community. The term “ALifer” was invented a bit as a joke at the first Santa Fe workshop in 1987. The term “ALife community” derives from the English designation of scientific communities (you also have the “anthropological community”). I first learned that Artificial Life existed from a book on the topic, written by the Danish biologist and philosopher of science, Claus Emmeche(2) (Emmeche 1991). (↑Risan 1997: ↑Introduction)
(2) What interested me most was the re-discovery of cybernetic ideas and practices, the holism and the systemic thinking within established and/or main stream scientific institutions (as Cybernetics, with the advent of AI, had been expelled to quite marginal pockets of science).